A Mini-Review for Causes, Effects and Preventive Measures of Choking Smog

Roheela Yasmeen, Sahiba Zulfiqar Ali, Zunaira Baig, Uzma Rafi, Syeda Shazia Bokhari, Aisha Waheed Qurashi


Air pollution and its increasing hazards are growing issues in Pakistan. The main reason is over population and efforts to provide luxurious lifestyles to people. So, changes in economic growth result in ever-increasing fossil fuels consumption, deforestation, industrialization, construction and urbanization. The activities are responsible for the enhanced level of airborne particles and ozone-depleting substances in the atmosphere that is resulting in low air quality especially in winter as compared to summer. Since the last few years, it was noticed in Lahore, Pakistan, that the ambient environment condition of the city is rapidly changing, particularly in winter. The sun rays are blocked out and result in smog. Smog is a combination of fog and smoke and an important secondary pollutant that reduces visibility and enhances various health issues. It particularly affects children and older people causing high risk diseases such as eye-watering, skin allergies and respiratory infections. Even though preventive measures are taken to control the effect of smog every winter, there is still a need to focus on the causes to control the prevailing problem of winter smog for betterment in the future. The present review will discuss smog’s history, sources, effects and preventive measures in Pakistan along with other countries.


Air pollution, Secondary pollutant, Winter, Visibility, Health issues

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