Water Defluoridation Using Modify Zeolite by Al+3 Ions and Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) in a Fixed Bed Column

Kourosh Rahmani, Hasan Rahmani, Khalilollah Moeinian, Mansour Sarafraz, Ayat Rahmani


Removal of the fluoride ion of drinking water requires an effective technique. In study zeolite clinoptilolite by Al+3ions and nanoscale iron (nZVI) modify was used to remove fluoride from water. Contact was done by a fixed bed absorbent column. In this column, experiments were carried out using aqueous solutions and drinking water with mass. The dynamics of the adsorption process were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models. The results showed that highest uptake capacities 1.14 and 2.4mg/g for the modified zeolitic Al and nanoscale iron (nZVI) respectively, were obtained with a 5g mass column, an inlet 10 mg/L fluoride solution, and a flow rate of 3mL/min, but the sorption capacities decreased when drinking water used. Experimental data were fitted to both models Langmuir and Freundlich, and the methods indicated that these materials are suitable for the removal of fluoride from water in fix bed systems. In general, it can be concluded that modified zeolite clinoptilolite with fixed bed an effective and economical method to remove fluoride from groundwater.


Zeolite Clinoptilolite, Fluoride, Breakthrough Point (BTC), Al+3, nZVI, Absorbant

Full Text:



Rahmani A, Rahmani K, Dobaradaran S, Mahvi AH, Mohamadjani R, Rahmani H. Child dental caries in relation to fluoride and some inorganic constituents in drinking water in Arsanjan, Iran. Fluoride. 2010;43(5):179-86.

Rahmani A, Rahmani K, Mahvi AH, Useful M. Drinking water fluoride and child dental caries in Noorabademamasani, Iran. Fluoride. 2010;43(8):187.

Ghorai S, Pant K. Investigations on the column performance of fluoride adsorption by activated alumina in a fixed-bed. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2004;98(23):165-73.

Mjengera H, Mkongo G. Appropriate deflouridation technology for use in flourotic areas in Tanzania. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C. 2003;28(7):1097-04.

Maliyekkal SM, Shukla S, Philip L, Nambi IM. Enhanced fluoride removal from drinking water by magnesia-amended activated alumina granules. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2008;140(76):183-92.

Mwaniki D. Fluoride sorption characteristics of different grades of bone charcoal, based on batch tests. Journal of dental research. 1992;71(12):1310-15.

Onyango MS, Kojima Y, Aoyi O, Bernardo EC, Matsuda H. Adsorption equilibrium modelling and solution chemistry dependence of fluoride removal from water by trivalent-cation-exchanged zeolite F-9. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2004;279(45):341-50.

Onyango MS, Kojima Y, Kumar A, Kuchar D, Kubota M, Matsuda H. Uptake of fluoride by Al3+ pretreated low‐silica synthetic zeolites: adsorption equilibrium and rate studies. Separation Science and Technology. 2006;41(32):683-04.

Sujana M, Thakur R, Rao S. Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by using alum sludge. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 1998;206(12):94-01.

Viswanathan N, Meenakshi S. Enhanced fluoride sorption using La (III) incorporated carboxylated chitosan beads. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2008;322(76):375-83.

Wu X, Zhang Y, Dou X, Yang M. Fluoride removal performance of a novel Fe–Al–Ce trimetal oxide adsorbent. Chemosphere. 2007;69(32):1758-64.

Mandal S, Mayadevi S. Adsorption of fluoride ions by Zn–Al layered double hydroxides. Applied Clay Science. 2008;40(22):54-62.

Onyango MS, Leswifi TY, Ochieng A, Kuchar D, Otieno FO, Matsuda H. Breakthrough analysis for water defluoridation using surface-tailored zeolite in a fixed bed column. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 2008;48(9):931-37.

Wang C-B, Zhang W-X. Synthesizing nanoscale iron particles for rapid and complete dechlorination of TCE and PCBs. Environmental science & technology. 1997;31(87):2154-56.

Dickinson M, Scott TB. The application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles for the remediation of a uranium-contaminated waste effluent. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2010;178(80):171-79.

Elliott DW, Lien H-L, Zhang W-X. Degradation of lindane by zero-valent iron nanoparticles. Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2009;135(6):317-24.

Gholami M, Rahmani K, Rahmani A, Rahmani H, Esrafili A. Oxidative degradation of clindamycin in aqueous solution using nanoscale zero-valent iron/H2O2/US. Desalination and Water Treatment. 2016;57(54):13878-86.

Li Y-H, Wang S, Cao A, Zhao D, Zhang X, Xu C, et al. Adsorption of fluoride from water by amorphous alumina supported on carbon nanotubes. Chemical Physics Letters. 2001;350(8):412-16.

Shih Y-h, Tai Y-t. Reaction of decabrominated diphenyl ether by zerovalent iron nanoparticles. Chemosphere. 2010;78(65):1200-06.

Song H, Carraway ER. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of chlorinated ethenes by nanoscale zero-valent iron. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. 2008;78(85):53-60.

Zhang X, Lin Y-m, Chen Z-l. 2, 4, 6-Trinitro- toluene reduction kinetics in aqueous solution using nanoscale zero-valent iron. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2009;165(43):923-27.

Gupta VK, Ali I, Saini VK. Defluoridation of wastewaters using waste carbon slurry. Water Research. 2007;41(7):3307-16.

Zhu H, Jia Y, Wu X, Wang H. Removal of arsenic from water by supported nano zero-valent iron on activated carbon. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2009;172(2):1591-96.

. Edition F. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO chronicle. 2011;38(1):104-08.

Alkan M, Çelikçapa S, Demirbaş Ö, Doğan M. Removal of reactive blue 221 and acid blue 62 anionic dyes from aqueous solutions by sepiolite. Dyes and Pigments. 2005;65(7):251-59.

. Lavecchia R, Medici F, Piga L, Rinaldi G, Zuorro A. Fluoride removal from water by adsorption on a high alumina content bauxite. Chmical engineering trasaction, 2012;26: 225-30.

Rahmani A, Nouri J, Kamal Ghadiri S, Mahvi A, ZareM R. Adsorption of fluoride from water by Al3+ and Fe3+ pretreated natural Iranian zeolites. International Journal of Environmental Research. 2010;4:607-14.

Streat M, Hellgardt K, Newton N. Hydrous ferric oxide as an adsorbent in water treatment: Part 3: Batch and mini-column adsorption of arsenic, phosphorus, fluorine and cadmium ions. Process safety and environmental protection. 2008;86(4):21-30.

Liu Q, Guo H, Shan Y. Adsorption of fluoride on synthetic siderite from aqueous solution. Journal of Fluorine Chemistry. 2010;131(8):635-41.

Teutli-Sequeira A, Solache-Ríos M, Martínez-Miranda V, Linares-Hernández I. Comparison of aluminum modified natural materials in the removal of fluoride ions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2014;418(6):254-60.

Dou X, Zhang Y, Wang H, Wang T, Wang Y. Performance of granular zirconium–iron oxide in the removal of fluoride from drinking water. Water Research. 2011;45(90):3571-88.

Mourabet M, El Boujaady H, El Rhilassi A, Ramdane H, Bennani-Ziatni M, El Hamri R, et al. Defluoridation of water using Brushite: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Desalination. 2011;278(12):1-9.

Wang Y, Chen N, Wei W, Cui J, Wei Z. Enhanced adsorption of fluoride from aqueous solution onto nanosized hydroxyapatite by low-molecular-weight organic acids. Desalination. 2011;276(8):161-68.

Aksu Z, Gönen F. Biosorption of phenol by immobilized activated sludge in a continuous packed bed: prediction of breakthrough curves. Process biochemistry. 2004;39(88):599-13.

Kalavathy H, Karthik B, Miranda LR. Removal and recovery of Ni and Zn from aqueous solution using activated carbon from Hevea brasiliensis: batch and column studies. Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2010;78(99):291-02.

Chen N, Zhang Z, Feng C, Li M, Chen R, Sugiura N. Investigations on the batch and fixed-bed column performance of fluoride adsorption by Kanuma mud. Desalination. 2011;268(76):76-82.

García-Sánchez J, Solache-Ríos M, Martínez-Miranda V, Morelos CS. Removal of fluoride ions from drinking water and fluoride solutions by aluminum modified iron oxides in a column system. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2013;407(9):410-15.

Tor A, Danaoglu N, Arslan G, Cengeloglu Y. Removal of fluoride from water by using granular red mud: batch and column studies. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2009;164(87):271-78.

Nur T, Loganathan P, Nguyen T, Vigneswaran S, Singh G, Kandasamy J. Batch and column adsorption and desorption of fluoride using hydrous ferric oxide: Solution chemistry and modeling. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2014;247(69):93-02.

Teutli-Sequeira A, Solache-Rios M, Martínez-Miranda V, Linares-Hernández I. Behavior of fluoride removal by aluminum modified zeolitic tuff and hematite in column systems and the thermodynamic parameters of the process. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 2015;226(7):227-39.

Iranian Journal of Health, Safety and Environment e-ISSN: :2345-5535 Iran university of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran