The Potential Ability of Plaster to Cause Breast Cancer as Indicated by CA15-3 and CEA Antigens in Women Working in Gypsum Factory

Ali Abdul Hussein S. AL-Janabi


Plaster is an important form of gypsum that mainly used in building construction. Breast cancer was investigated among women exposure to the dust of such material. The levels of CA15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigens (CEA) as indicators for breast cancer were measured in the serum of 120 women working in a plaster factory. All of involved women showed a normal level of CEA, while 12.5% of them had moderately elevated levels of CA15-3. In conclusion; plaster dust has no significant effect to cause breast cancer in working women. Moderately high levels of CA15-3 in some of exposed women may relate to liver diseases.


Breast Cancer, Plaster, CA15-3, CEA

Full Text:



Integrated Laboratory Systems (ILS), Inc. Chemical information review document for synthetic and naturally mined gypsum. CAS No. 13397-24-25. 2006. Available at:

Olson DW. Gypsum. U.S. Geological survey minerals yearbook. 2001. 35:1-10, Available at:

. Dylewski R, Adamczyk J. The comparison of thermal insulation types of plaster with cement plaster. J Cleaner Production. 2014, 83: 256-62.

. De Medeiros MS, Hurtado-Guerrero JC, Silva LG. Health in the context of the gypsum production area of the city of Araripina, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Saúde Soc. São Paulo. 2010, 19(2): 358-70.

. Nandi SS, Dhatrak SV, Chaterjee DM, Dhumne UL. Health survey in gypsum mines in India. Indian J Community Med. 2009, 34(4):343-45.

. Van Thienen G, Spee T. Health effects of construction materials and construction products. TTA brochure NRI. 2008, 13-14(1):2- 23.

. Freedman LS, Edwards BK, Ries LA, Young JL. Cancer incidence in four member countries (Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan) of the Middle East cancer consortium (MECC) compared with US SEER. National cancer Institute.NIH Pub. No. 06-5873. Bethesda.2001.

. Rizwan MM, Saadullah M. Lack awareness about breast cancer and its screening in developing countries. Indian J cancer. 2009; 46(3): 252-253.

. Misek DE, Kim EH. Protein biomarkers for the early detection of breast cancer. International J Proteomics. 2011, ID 343582:1-9.

. Daniele A, Divella R, Trerotoli P, Caringella ME, Paradiso A, Casamassima P, et al. Clinical usefulness of cancer antigen 15-3 in breast cancer patients before and after surgery. The Open Breast Cancer J. 2013, 5:1-6.

. Chourin S, Georgescu D, Gray C, Guillemet C, Loeb A, Veyret C, Basuyau JP. Value of CA15-3 determination in the initial management of breast cancer patients. Annals of Oncology. 2009, 20(5):962-64.

. Duffy MJ, Shering S, Sherry F, McDermott E, OʼHiggins N. CA15-3: a prognostic marker in breast cancer. Int J Biol Markers. 2000, 15(4): 330-33.

. Yerushalmi R, Tyldesley S, Kennecke H, et al. Tumor markers in metastatic breast cancer subtypes: frequency of elevation and correlation with outcome. Annals of Oncology. 2011:1-8.

. Laessig D, Nagel D, Heinemann V, Untch M, kahlert S, Bauerfeind I, Stieber P. Importance of CEA and CA15-3 during disease progression in metastatic breast cancer patients. Anticancer Research. 2007, 27: 1963-68.

. Eskildsen T, Glazier N, Gooch C, Czymmek KJ. Gypsum bedding in long-term manure storage may create dangerous conditions. Cvent. 2013.

. Brun P, Kunz A, Funke M. Buried under gypsum powder-a rare respiratory complication. Respiratory Medicine. 2013, 8: 36-39.

. Colomer R, Ruibal A, Genollá J, Rubio D, Del Campo JM, Bodi R, Salvador L. Circulating CA15-3 levels in the postsurgical follow-up of breast cancer patients and non-malignant diseases. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1989, 13(2):123-33.

. Yeganeh-Amirkande S, Assmar M, Ghanaei-Faribors M, Mozafari-Noor A. The frequency of CA15-3, CA125, CA19-9 in patients with hepatitis B and C. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2015:29-33.

. Hayes DF, Zurawski VR Jr, Kufe DW. Comparison of circulating CA15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigen levels in patients with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1986, 4(10):1542-50.

. Keshaviah A, Dellapasqua S, Rotmensz N, Lindtner J, Crivellari D, Collins J, et al. CA15-3 and alkaline phosphatase as predictors for breast cancer recurrence: a combined analysis of seven international breast cancer study group trials. Annals of Oncology. 2007, 18:701-08.

. Gion M, Mione R, Leon AE, Dittadi R. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of CA27.29 and CA15.3 in primary breast cancer. Clinical Chemistry. 1999, 45(5):630-37.

. Clapp RW, Jacobs MM, Loechler EL. Environmental and occupational causes of cancer new evidence, 2005-2007. Rev Environ Health. 2008, 23(1):1-37.

. Galay K. Socio-economic and environmental impact analysis of Khothagpa gypsum mine. J Bhutan Studies. 2008, 18:50-81.

. Manjula R, Praveena R, Clevin RR, Ghattargi CH, Dorle AS, Lalitha DH. Effects of occupational dust exposure on the health status of Portland cement factory workers. International J Medicine and Public Health. 2013, 3(issue 3):192-96.

Iranian Journal of Health, Safety and Environment e-ISSN: :2345-5535 Iran university of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran